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Huntia Guidelines

Guidelines for
Contributors to Huntia


Huntia is published irregularly, in one or more numbers per volume of approximately 200 pages, by Hunt Institute. It publishes articles on all aspects of the history of botany.

The Fritillaria imperialis L., Crown Imperial, was one of Mrs. Hunt's favorite garden flowers and was a logical choice for the Hunt Institute's logo. This more stylized version was created around 1970.



Submit one printed copy of manuscript to:

Ms. Scarlett T. Townsend, Editor, Huntia
Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Ave.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15213-3890
Email: st19@andrew.cmu.edu
Phone: 412-268-7304
Fax: 412-268-5677

With the ease of the computer age, I understand the temptation to abandon the printout and submit the manuscript electronically. However, with the different fonts, word processing applications and computer operating systems, the symbols and characters that appear perfectly on your screen may be garbled or missing on my screen. While I will happily accept your email attachment, Zip disk (Mac or PC formatted) or CD, I will need a printout against which to verify the electronic text. Since all manuscripts go through the peer review process, it is best if the initial submission is a printout. This will eliminate any confusion I might have among various computer file versions of a manuscript. If mailing is a problem, a PDF electronic submission may be the answer.

Double-space all material, including abstract, epigraphs, acknowledgements, reference lists, captions, tables, and appendixes. Do not justify right margin or use proportional spacing. Include a one-paragraph abstract. The order and headings of sections within the rest of the manuscript are at the author's discretion. At end of text, provide author's/authors' current address(es) (but not occupations, titles or biographical notes).

Manuscripts should be submitted with the understanding that copyright transfer is required for publication in Huntia, except for public-domain works. Material that is under consideration for publication or that has been published elsewhere is not eligible to be published in Huntia. All manuscripts are subject to peer review and may be returned to contributors with suggestions for revision. The final decision to accept or decline a manuscript is the responsibility of the Editor.

Please note that books for announcement or review should be sent to Charlotte Tancin, Book Reviews and Announcements Editor, Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15213-3890.

Proofs & Reprints

Authors receive first proofs (already paged) only; corrected proofs are to be returned to the Editor. The Editor sends reprint order forms; even if no reprints are desired, authors should indicate that preference on the order form and return it promptly to the Editor or to the printer, Allen Press. Authors pay for their own reprints. Authors receive one complimentary copy of the journal.

Page Charges

We no longer impose page charges.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes should not be used; use in-text citations only. Endnotes are discouraged but are permitted if they present necessary or helpful supplementary information that would be awkward to incorporate in the text. Endnotes must not be used, however, merely for attributive citations.

In-Text Citations

Authors should cite sources in text in the name-year style. The order of elements for in-text citations is, in parentheses: Author's/authors' last name(s) + date(s) + volume number* + part number*+ page number(s) + plate(s)* + figure(s)* + table(s)* (*optional; include if appropriate). Page numbers must be provided if citation is for a direct quotation; page numbers are optional in other cases. See also Unpublished Sources.

Sample in-text citations

Two authors: (Jones and Brown 1970)

Two different authors with the same last name: (P. Brown 1961), (J. Brown 1994)

Three or more authors: (Schmutz et al. 1968)

Multiple in-text citations:(Jones and Brown 1970; Smith 1980) or (Jones 1960, 1980; Smith 1973)

Two or more works by same author(s): Use "a," "b," etc. with dates (e.g., 1960a, 1960b) to distinguish between works written by the same author or authors in the same year, e.g., (Jones 1960a) or (Jones and Brown 1960a, b, c).

Unpublished data: (Jones, unpubl.) or (Jones, unpubl. data)

In preparation/In press: (Jones, in prep.) or (Jones, in press)

Personal communication/Personal observation: "Personal communication" refers to a communication to the present author from someone else, e.g., (Jones, pers. comm.) or (Jones, pers. obs.).

Work in another source (e.g., chapter in book): Corresponding bibliographic entry should identify source as being published in another source, e.g., (Jones 1980). See also Chapter citations.

Page numbers cited:
(Bessey 1897a, pp. 168–169)
(Bessey 1894a, p. 240; 1897a, pp. 171–172)

Volumes and page numbers cited:
(Smith 1989, 3:114)
(Garcia 1987, 2:168, 3:119–123)
(Kew, Director's Correspondence, 119:553; 160:36–58, 143

Figure cited: (Godard 1937, p. 274, fig. 113)

Plate cited: (Alvi and Rahman 1968, plate 24)


Full bibliographic citations for all published works cited in text should be given in a "Bibliography," "Literature Cited," or "References" section in alphabetical order by first author's surname. The choice of heading is the author's decision. Verify all entries against original sources, especially journal titles, accents and diacritical marks, and foreign spelling. Generally, cite the work actually used. Additional information about date(s) of earlier or later (maybe facsimile) editions can be given parenthetically at the end of the citation, as may be useful. Reprintings generally are not worth noting, so long as nothing has been changed from the original printing of that edition—just cite the date of the original printing. Binomials and titles of books and periodicals to be italicized in running text should be underlined. In references, titles of books or periodicals should not be underlined for italicization. If a scientific name occurs in a book, chapter, or article title, however, it should be underlined for italicization. See also Unpublished Sources.

Name(s) of author(s)
Invert the name of the first author. Use initials for the first and middle names of authors to avoid any problems with the consistent rendering of full names. Use periods with initials. Add one space between first and middle initials, e.g., A. B. Smith, throughout main text and in reference citations. There is no comma after the initials when citing two-author publications, e.g., Stafleu, F. A. and R. S. Cowan. Use and, not &, when two or more authors are named, e.g., Farr, E. A., J. A. Leussink and F. A. Stafleu. Give names of all authors; do not use et al. When authors’ names are repeated in a reference list, cite all names in all instances. Do not use dashes or Ibid.

Book citations
Include date, place of publication, and publisher, but not page numbers. Indicate clarifying state or country information for city of publication if needed, e.g., Cambridge, Mass. (i.e., not Cambridge, England); in such cases, use standard, not postal, abbreviations for U.S. states. The place of publication should be an English spelling, even if the book title is Latin or German, etc. The other version can go in parentheses if you feel it is necessary. If subtitles are given, use a colon to separate titles from subtitles (regardless of how the title is rendered on the title page).

Rodgers, A. D., III. 1942. John Torrey: A Story of North American Botany. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Schmutz, E. M., B. N. Freeman and R. E. Reed. 1968. Livestock-Poisoning Plants of Arizona. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Allaby, M., ed. 1985. The Oxford Dictionary of Natural History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Note: books edited by are listed after books written by the same person.

If the book is a second or later edition, add an edition statement after the title.

Arber, A. 1986. Herbals, Their Origin and Evolution: A Chapter in the History of Botany, 1470–1670, ed. 3. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

If it is useful to cite information for earlier or later editions, cite as in the examples below:

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. 2 vols. Stockholm: Impensis Laurentii Salvii. (Facsim. ed. 1957–1959, London.)

Linnaeus, C. 1957–1959. Species Plantarum. A facsimile of the first edition. 2 vols. London: Printed for the Ray Society. (Orig. ed. 1753, Stockholm.)

Fyson, D. R. 1949. Mahabalipuram or Seven Pagodas. Madras: Higginbothams. (Reprint, orig. ed. ca.1933.)

Oparin, A. I. 1953. The Origin of Life, ed. 2, transl. S. Morgulis. New York: Dover Publications.

Add volume (and part, if appropriate) information after title. Use arabic, not roman, numerals to indicate volume or part information. Even if only one volume in a multivolume series was consulted, include date span and total number of volumes. If citing a chapter in a multivolume work, include page numbers after individual volume information.

Stafleu, F. A. and R. S. Cowan. 1976–1992. Taxonomic Literature, ed. 2. 7 vols. Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema and Holkema; The Hague and Boston: W. Junk.

Skottsberg, C. 1940. Survey of the Plant System. In: C. Skottsberg, ed. 1932–1940. Växternas liv.….5 vols. Stockholm: Aktiebotaget Familjeboken. Vol. 5.

Bessey, C. E. 1895. Vegetable kingdom. In: C. K. Adams et al., eds. 1893–1897. Johnson’s Universal Cyclopedia …, new ed. 8 vols. New York: D. Appleton and A. J. Johnson. Vol. 8. Pp. 453–464.

Cite books, even when they have series designations, as books, not as serials (journals). Abbreviate series titles according to B-P-H/S, include volume or number designations, and enclose in square brackets following the complete book citation.

Little, E. L., Jr., R. O. Woodbury and F. H. Wadsworth. 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Vol. 2. Washington. [Agric. Handb. 449.]

Citing different parts of same series in one citation
McVaugh, Rogers. 1977–1987. Botanical results of the Sessé & Mociño Expedition (1787–1803). I. Summary of excursions and travels. II. The Icones Florae Mexicanae. III. The impact of this and other expeditions on contemporary botany in Europe. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 11: 97–195; 14: 99–140; 16: 155–171.

Book reviews
Refer to citation style for books. "[Review]" can be used in citations of book-review titles; if book review is untitled, "[Book review.]" can be used. Do not underline titles of books when they occur as part of a title of a book review; use initial caps to set book title off if embedded in a longer title.

Schmid, R. 1992. B-P-H/S: Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum/Supplementum. [Review.] Taxon 41(3): 624.

Conference proceedings, technical reports, speeches, lectures
Refer to citation style for books. Citations for meetings and conferences can be given in the format shown: International Conference on the Biology of Whales (2nd : 1985 : Boston).

Article citations
Abbreviate journal titles according to Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum/Supplementum. There is no space between volume and part numbers, but there is a space following a colon before page numbers.

Smith, B. S. 1992. Lucy Bishop Millington, nineteenth-century botanist: Her life and letters to Charles Horton Peck, State Botanist of New York. Huntia 8(2): 111–153.

New series of a journal:
Beddome, R. H. 1858. Extract from report on the vegetable products of the Pulney hills. Madras J. Lit. Sci., n.s. 3(5): 163­169.

Chapter citations
Both the chapter date and the book date are needed. Provide page numbers of the chapter being cited. See also Work in another source.

Kingsbury, J. M. 1977. The problem of poisonous plants. In: A. D. Kinghorn, ed. 1979. Toxic Plants. New York: Columbia University Press. Pp. 1-6.

Cite as for book but include, e.g., "Ph.D. dissertation" or "Master's thesis." Supply city information only if institution is a branch of a university, e.g., University of Pittsburgh, Johnstown.

Mingrone, L. V. 1968. A Comparative Study of the Allium falcifolium Alliance. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University.

Additional information:
When including additional commentary about a citation, list as follows:

Browne, P. 1774b. A catalogue of fishes observed on our coasts, and in our lakes and rivers, classed and disposed according to Linnaeus. Gent. Mag. 44: 515–516. [Reprinted and annotated in Nelson and Walsh, 1995, pp. 199–211.]

Unpublished Sources

In text
If an unpublished source—e.g., a manuscript or work in preparation—is cited in text, page numbers should be given only when the material is explicitly paged. Dates for unpublished materials are not necessary, as citation dates indicate time of publication, not of composition. Provide minimum information necessary to unequivocally identify unpublished sources, which are not to be cited in references. See also In-text Citations.

In references
Works “in press” or “in preparation” are cited only in text. Forthcoming journal articles are not cited in the bibliography unless the final article title, journal name, and volume and issue numbers are known. Forthcoming books are cited in the bibliography if they have been submitted to the publisher and a publication year has been set.

Unpublished materials, personal communications, and observations should not be cited in a reference list unless they are in letter or manuscript form, for example, and are deposited in accessible collections. For letters, provide names of author and recipient, full date, city in which letter was written, and specific location of deposit. See also References.

Bourne, A. G. [1915]. Pulney Report. Depository: Library and Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

John Milton Bigelow, Lancaster, Ohio, to Asa Gray, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 19 April 1853. Depository: Asa Gray papers, Archives, Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Pittsburgh, Pa.


Do not submit original artwork. Figures may be black and white illustrations--prints of line drawings or paintings, photographs, maps, charts or graphs. Prepare using professional standards and aim for consistency of detail among illustrations. These photographic prints must be glossy with a sharp focus, suitable contrast, and a full range of tonal values. Do not submit halftones. Do not write on front or back of actual print. Artwork is sized to either one-column, one-and-a-half-column, or two-column width; authors may express column preferences. Provide captions for figures. It may be necessary for an author to obtain permission to reproduce copyrighted material, in which case copies of signed permission agreements must be forwarded to the Institute at time of submission.

We accept digital image submissions in 300 dpi, black and white, TIFF format. When preparing your own image files for submission, please size images to the following widths: single column, 2 5/8" (16 pica); 1 and 1/2 column, 4 3/16" (25 picas); double column and full page, 5 5/8" (34 pica). We will continue to accept photographs and slides, which we will scan.

Organize text so that figures are cited in numerical order. "Figure" should be spelled out when it appears outside of parentheses and is always capitalized when cited, e.g., "Figures 1–3" or "Figures 1, 2" or "Figures 3, 8" or "Figures 1a, b." When given in parenthetical notes, "Figures" should be abbreviated to "Figs."


Double-space all text. Number tables consecutively but separate from figures. Provide title; column heads should be centered over respective columns. Column text should be flush left within column. Do not use vertical or horizontal rules within tables. Any notes to table should be placed beneath table in a "Notes" section; use numbers, not letters—e.g., "1" not "a"—for each note.

Organize text so that tables are cited in numeric order. Tables are cited in the same style as figures.


In general, format according to style for tables; appendixes usually are placed before references in the manuscript.

Contact Scarlett T. Townsend, Editor, at st19@andrew.cmu.edu if you have further questions or require additional information.

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